Effects of dietary supplementation of the osmolyte betaine on growing pig performance and serological and hematological indices during thermoneutral and heat-stressed conditions

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary betaine on pig performance and serological and hematological indices during thermoneutral and heat-stressed conditions. Individually housed pigs (n = 64; 39.0 ± 1.5 kg BW) were assigned within weight blocks and sex to 1 of 8 treatments. Treatments consisted of 2 environmental conditions (thermoneutral or heat-stressed) and 4 levels of betaine (0, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%). Room temperatures followed a daily pattern with a low of 14°C and a high of 21°C for the thermoneutral environment and a low of 28°C and a high of 35°C for the heat-stressed environment. Experimental diets were fed from d −7 (7 d prior to imposing temperature treatments; constant 21°C) until 28. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were measured on d 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28, and blood samples were collected on d 3 and 28. Heat stress reduced (P ≤ 0.008) ADG (0.710 vs. 0.822 kg/d) and ADFI (1.81 vs. 2.27 kg/d) and increased G:F (P = 0.036; 0.391 vs. 0.365). Betaine tended to quadratically increase G:F (P = 0.071; 0.377, 0.391, 0.379, and 0.366 for 0, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20% betaine, respectively), regardless of environment. Heat stress increased (P ≤ 0.001) respiration rate (48 vs. 23 breaths/30 s) and rectal temperature (39.47 vs. 38.94°C) throughout d 1 to 28. Betaine at 0.10% reduced rectal temperature in heat-stressed pigs but not in control pigs (interaction, P = 0.040). Heat stress increased serum cysteine and triglycerides and reduced Ca, alkaline phosphatase, and lipase, regardless of day of sampling (P ≤ 0.048). Heat stress increased serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and K and reduced osmolarity, Na, urea N, methionine, homocysteine, the albumin:globulin ratio, and blood eosinophil count on d 3 but not on d 28 (interaction, P ≤ 0.013). Heat stress increased serum Mg, globulin, creatinine, amylase, and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and reduced P, the urea N:creatinine ratio, alanine aminotransferase, NEFA, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells on d 28 but not on d 3 (interaction, P ≤ 0.034). Betaine increased serum osmolarity and NEFA and reduced CPK and K on d 3 but not on d 28 (interaction, P ≤ 0.060) and increased serum creatinine and reduced amylase on d 28 but not on d 3 (interaction, P ≤ 0.057). Heat stress reduced growth, disturbed ion balance, and increased markers of muscle damage. Betaine had a minor impact on alleviating heat stress with the possible exception of early days of heat exposure. The beneficial effect of betaine was diminished by pig adaptation.

More paper: 

Effects of dietary lysophospholipid complex on apparent ileal digestibility of fatty acids, intestinal morphology and barrier function, and growth performance in nursery pigs

Effects of feeding camelina cake to weaned pigs on safety, growth performance, and fatty acid composition of pork

Registration hotline: 021-57634675

fax: 021-57632800

Copy right : 上海亘泰实业集团

Collaboration & Sponsorship: 021-57634938 57631012


Site Map |   CNZZStatistics

address:Shanghai songjiang jiuting town nine new highway 90 lane 3 nine new commercial building 15 floor


WeChat ID:asaschina

The pig nutrition international BBS CSIS

- ×
Registration hotline
Collaboration & Sponsorship